Major chilli farming tracts in India
It is used in India as a principle ingredient of various curries, and chutneys. It is also used for vegetables, spices, condiments, sauces and pickles. Dry chillies are used for curry powder. Red colour in chili is due to “Capsanthin”. Pungency in chillies is due to the active constituent “Capsaicin”, an alkaloid, is extracted from chillies and is used to medicine.
Climate for Chilli Farming :
chili is a plant of tropical and sub -tropical region -It grows well in warm and humid climate and a temperature of 20-25°C. Low moisture in soil during blossom development and fruit formation causes the bud, deblossom and fruit drops. Excessive rainfall is detrimental to the crops, because it brings about defoliation and rotting of the plant. As a rained crop, it is grown in areas receiving an annual precipitation of 25-30 inches.
Best Soil for Chilli Farming :
Chilli can be grown in a range of soils, but black soils which retain moisture for long periods are suitable for rainfed crop whereas well drained soils, deltaic soils and sandy loams are good under irrigated condition. However, in hills of Uttarakhand, chilli are grown in a wide range of soils ranging from sandy to clay loam mixed with gravel and coarse sand.
Maintenance of buffer zone in Chilli Farming :
a buffer zone of 7.5 – 15 m is to be left all around the conventional farm, depending upon the location of the farm. The produce from this buffer zone shall not be treated as organic.
Planting material/Propagation in Chilli Farming :
Chilli is propagated by seeds. For raising nurseries, seeds of high yielding varieties with tolerance to pests and diseases may be used. They should be carefully selected from certified organic farms or from own seed plot which is raised organically. To start with, chemically untreated seeds from local high yielding varieties could also be used, in the absence of organically produced seeds.
Chilli is one of the most valuable crops of India. The crop is grown largely for its fruits all over the India.